EXHAUST EMISSIONS VS EFFICIENCY VS LOAD GRAPH ENGINE PDF



Exhaust Emissions Vs Efficiency Vs Load Graph Engine Pdf

Evaluation of the Effect of Engine Load and Turbocharger. sued in 1979, did not regulate the emissions of carbon monoxide or unburned hydrocarbons from gas tur-bines because the levels are very low at base load. However, in December 1987, EPA’s “top-down ap-proach” for determining the Best Available Control Technology (BACT) became a requirement. This ratcheted allowable gas turbine NOx emission, Evaluation of the effect of engine, load and turbocharger parameters on transient emissions of a diesel engine C.D. Rakopoulos∗, A.M. Dimaratos, E.G. Giakoumis, D.C. Rakopoulos Internal Combustion Engines Laboratory, Thermal Engineering Department, School of Mechanical Engineering, National Technical University of Athens,.

Why engine efficiency low at part load? Quora

Analysis of Brake Thermal efficiency and Oxygen in exhaust. the engine like Brake power, emissions, and heat release but we are going to consider only Brake thermal efficiency and Oxygen in the exhaust. Load test was conducted on a compression Ignition engine for various concentration of oxygen from (21% to 27%) with an …, Performance and Exhaust Emissions of a Diesel Engine Using Custard based Biodiesel G. Venkatakoteswara Rao1, Chenga Reddy. Figure 2 Exhaust gas analyzer plotted. The graph may indicate the increase of Brake thermal efficiency with load. When compared between.

03/04/2018 · This review article summarizes major and representative developments in vehicle emissions regulations, engine efficiency, and emission control from 2017. The article starts with the key regulatory developments in the field, including newly proposed … EFFECT ON PERFORMANCE AND EXHAUST EMISSIONS A. Brake Power: Fig. 4: B.P Vs Load Figure shows the Brake Power of engine with different load condition 0%, 20%, 40% 60%, 80% and 100%. The electrical dynamometer is used to measure BP.

Highlights The effect of ethanol was studied in S.I. engine at standard pressure peak position. A slightly better global efficiency (в€ј5%) was achieved with E85 compared to gasoline. Particle number emissions were reduced (в€ј90%) with ethanol blends. A 50% reduction of benzene and 1,3-butadiene emissions was achieved with E85 blend. 01MunteanGeorge.ppt How Exhaust Emissions Drive Diesel Engine Fuel Efficiency George Muntean Pacific Northwest National Laboratory 30.08.04 DEER 2004

The engine performance and exhaust emissions characteristics of an internal combustion engine using three different fuel efficiency devices, namely Hiclone, Supermax and FFC are analyzed compared and discussed in this paper in order to identify the best fuel efficiency device among three. The testing was done in a 2.4L 4-cylinder Toyota Camry Effect of Engine Backpressure on the Performance and Emissions of a CI Engine load and exhaust emissions were measured from which bsfc and efficiency were computed. The variations of these parameters with backpressure are presented. Figure 3 shows the variation of brake thermal efficiency (О· th) with engine backpressure. Figure 3(a), (b

IV. EFFECT ON PERFORMANCE AND EXHAUST EMISSIONS A. Brake Power: Fig. 4: B.P Vs Load Figure shows the Brake Power of engine with different load condition 0%, 20%, 40% 60%, 80% and 100%. The electrical dynamometer is used to measure BP. As shown in graph blend of butanol with petrol is increasing BP and increasing load on engine is also increased utilising energy of exhaust gas. Different readings are taken for 100% load conditions. The effect of preheating of air is analysed by heating the inlet air by using a coil type heater. Preheating improved the brake thermal efficiency and brought down CO and HC emissions however it …

28/03/2017В В· This review paper summarizes major and representative developments in vehicle engine efficiency and emissions regulations and technologies from 2016. The paper starts with the key regulatory developments in the field, including newly proposed European RDE (real driving emissions) particle number reg International Journal of Engineering Research and General Science Volume 2, Issue 4, International Journal of Engineering Research and General Science Volume 2, Issue 4, operation over entire load range. Graph No 6: Load vs Exhaust gas Temperature

The engine performance and exhaust emissions characteristics of an internal combustion engine using three different fuel efficiency devices, namely Hiclone, Supermax and FFC are analyzed compared and discussed in this paper in order to identify the best fuel efficiency device among three. The testing was done in a 2.4L 4-cylinder Toyota Camry EFFECT ON PERFORMANCE AND EXHAUST EMISSIONS A. Brake Power: Fig. 4: B.P Vs Load Figure shows the Brake Power of engine with different load condition 0%, 20%, 40% 60%, 80% and 100%. The electrical dynamometer is used to measure BP.

Study and the effects of ignition timing on SpringerLink

exhaust emissions vs efficiency vs load graph engine pdf

PERFORMANCE EMISSIONS AND COMBUSTION. ethanol blends on regulated engine exhaust emissions, along with a number of unregulated toxic compounds. Four different fuel formulations were used in the engine performance and exhaust emissions evaluations. Three different models of off-road diesel engines were used to assess any effects from differing injection system types,, Study and the effects of ignition timing on gasoline engine performance and emissions. Authors; Setting the correct ignition timing is crucial in the performance and exhaust emissions of an engine.The objective of the present work is to evaluate whether engine speed, engine load, water and lube oil temperatures, fuel and.

exhaust emissions vs efficiency vs load graph engine pdf

Performance Enhancement & Emission Reduction of Single

exhaust emissions vs efficiency vs load graph engine pdf

Why engine efficiency low at part load? Quora. IV. EFFECT ON PERFORMANCE AND EXHAUST EMISSIONS A. Brake Power: Fig. 4: B.P Vs Load Figure shows the Brake Power of engine with different load condition 0%, 20%, 40% 60%, 80% and 100%. The electrical dynamometer is used to measure BP. As shown in graph blend of butanol with petrol is increasing BP and increasing load on engine is also increased Power Flow and Efficiency . Engine Testing and Instrumentation 2 Volumetric efficiency If we think of the engine as an air pump then theoretically it should draw in and exhaust its own volume of air each time it cycles an engine and exhaust system as air pumping devices..

exhaust emissions vs efficiency vs load graph engine pdf


03/04/2018 · This review article summarizes major and representative developments in vehicle emissions regulations, engine efficiency, and emission control from 2017. The article starts with the key regulatory developments in the field, including newly proposed … Power Flow and Efficiency . Engine Testing and Instrumentation 2 Volumetric efficiency If we think of the engine as an air pump then theoretically it should draw in and exhaust its own volume of air each time it cycles an engine and exhaust system as air pumping devices.

Highlights The effect of ethanol was studied in S.I. engine at standard pressure peak position. A slightly better global efficiency (∼5%) was achieved with E85 compared to gasoline. Particle number emissions were reduced (∼90%) with ethanol blends. A 50% reduction of benzene and 1,3-butadiene emissions was achieved with E85 blend. engine performance characteristics with use of a chassis dynamometer test bench. The paper presents the load tests realization and the re-sults of exhaust emission tests for two twin vehicles, one of which has been modified in the area of the engine control-ler. Results of …

01MunteanGeorge.ppt How Exhaust Emissions Drive Diesel Engine Fuel Efficiency George Muntean Pacific Northwest National Laboratory 30.08.04 DEER 2004 ethanol blends on regulated engine exhaust emissions, along with a number of unregulated toxic compounds. Four different fuel formulations were used in the engine performance and exhaust emissions evaluations. Three different models of off-road diesel engines were used to assess any effects from differing injection system types,

Variation of Exhaust gas temp. Vs BMEP for Biodiesel with different EGR in partial load but increase at higher engine load due to less oxygen available for F.J. Lo´pez “Exhaust Emissions from a Diesel engine fueled with transesterified waste olive oil”, Fuel 82 pp1311–1315, 2003. 7. A.S. Ramadhas, C. Muraleedharan, S Performance and Exhaust Emissions of a Diesel Engine Using Custard based Biodiesel G. Venkatakoteswara Rao1, Chenga Reddy. Figure 2 Exhaust gas analyzer plotted. The graph may indicate the increase of Brake thermal efficiency with load. When compared between

Power Flow and Efficiency . Engine Testing and Instrumentation 2 Volumetric efficiency If we think of the engine as an air pump then theoretically it should draw in and exhaust its own volume of air each time it cycles an engine and exhaust system as air pumping devices. 07/04/2017В В· It is known that automotive engine efficiency (ie. fuel efficiency) is maximum at a specific range of medium loads. If we go higher than this range, the efficiency drops. If we go lower than these loads, the efficiency drops as well. Do we know the reasons for that? I am particularly interested in

Understanding EXHAUST EMISSIONS . Five Gas Exhaust Analysis Theory Use of a four or five Gas Exhaust Analyser can be helpful in troubleshooting both emissions and driveability concerns. Presently, shop grade analysers are capable of measuring from as … emission estimates and the effect of exhaust emission control methods on gas turbine per-formance. This paper provides nominal esti-mates of existing gas turbine exhaust emissions as well as emissions estimates for numerous gas turbine modifications and uprates. (For site-specific emissions values, customers should con-tact GE.)

exhaust emissions vs efficiency vs load graph engine pdf

sued in 1979, did not regulate the emissions of carbon monoxide or unburned hydrocarbons from gas tur-bines because the levels are very low at base load. However, in December 1987, EPA’s “top-down ap-proach” for determining the Best Available Control Technology (BACT) became a requirement. This ratcheted allowable gas turbine NOx emission sued in 1979, did not regulate the emissions of carbon monoxide or unburned hydrocarbons from gas tur-bines because the levels are very low at base load. However, in December 1987, EPA’s “top-down ap-proach” for determining the Best Available Control Technology (BACT) became a requirement. This ratcheted allowable gas turbine NOx emission

Evaluation of the Effect of Engine Load and Turbocharger

exhaust emissions vs efficiency vs load graph engine pdf

Engine Testing Overview users.sussex.ac.uk. In a Diesel engine as load is increased , we will be giving more throttle to maintain the specified RPM. Hence more fuel will be injected into the cylinder ( pulse width is increased ). As we demand more power ( as there is more load ) more fuel i..., Gas Engine Advantages vs. Diesel Engine • Best fuel efficiency • Lowest owning and operating costs (Especially in high hour applications) • Well suited for CHP operation • Lower emissions capabilities • Better suited for variable load applications • No local fuel ….

2016 2017 Worldwide Emissions Standards

(PDF) Performance Enhancement & Emission Reduction of. Highlights The effect of ethanol was studied in S.I. engine at standard pressure peak position. A slightly better global efficiency (в€ј5%) was achieved with E85 compared to gasoline. Particle number emissions were reduced (в€ј90%) with ethanol blends. A 50% reduction of benzene and 1,3-butadiene emissions was achieved with E85 blend., Study and the effects of ignition timing on gasoline engine performance and emissions. Authors; Setting the correct ignition timing is crucial in the performance and exhaust emissions of an engine.The objective of the present work is to evaluate whether engine speed, engine load, water and lube oil temperatures, fuel and.

Projections are met. 24% lower FC vs commercial engine. Emissions seem addressable. 24% cycle-average FC than conventional 4-stroke MD diesel engine. Projections into the HD engine show >50% BTE without VVT, high PCP, WHR, low-friction package, etc. Near the sweet spot NOx/soot>100. DPF issues at high speed and load. Achates SAE ComVEC 10/15 28/03/2017В В· This review paper summarizes major and representative developments in vehicle engine efficiency and emissions regulations and technologies from 2016. The paper starts with the key regulatory developments in the field, including newly proposed European RDE (real driving emissions) particle number reg

It depends on what meets the customer's application needs Lean‐burn or rich‐burn? GE's Gas Engines business develops lean‐burn and rich‐burn technologies that have proven themselves in minimizing emissions and delivering strong operational performance. Effect of Engine Backpressure on the Performance and Emissions of a CI Engine load and exhaust emissions were measured from which bsfc and efficiency were computed. The variations of these parameters with backpressure are presented. Figure 3 shows the variation of brake thermal efficiency (η th) with engine backpressure. Figure 3(a), (b

But depression in exhaust gas temperature is not proportional to quantity of biodiesel in the fuel. Lower exhaust gas temperature is caused by better thermal efficiency. Engine Emissions The emissions of CO increase with increasing load (Figure 3 (a)). Higher the load, richer fuel–air mixture is burned, and thus more CO is produced due to It depends on what meets the customer's application needs Lean‐burn or rich‐burn? GE's Gas Engines business develops lean‐burn and rich‐burn technologies that have proven themselves in minimizing emissions and delivering strong operational performance.

these is to analyse with simulation the load-dependent efficiency graph of gas boiler which provides the necessary amount of steam and then to use the results to find the conditions of optimal operation and to calculate costs reduction arising from it. Keywords: boiler, load-efficiency, heat-treatment 1. … Performance and Exhaust Emissions of a Diesel Engine Using Custard based Biodiesel G. Venkatakoteswara Rao1, Chenga Reddy. Figure 2 Exhaust gas analyzer plotted. The graph may indicate the increase of Brake thermal efficiency with load. When compared between

Gas Engine Advantages vs. Diesel Engine • Best fuel efficiency • Lowest owning and operating costs (Especially in high hour applications) • Well suited for CHP operation • Lower emissions capabilities • Better suited for variable load applications • No local fuel … emission estimates and the effect of exhaust emission control methods on gas turbine per-formance. This paper provides nominal esti-mates of existing gas turbine exhaust emissions as well as emissions estimates for numerous gas turbine modifications and uprates. (For site-specific emissions values, customers should con-tact GE.)

Engine Performance and Exhaust Emissions from a 15, and 20%), engine load (0, 25, 50 CSME B20 blend operated engine had shown improved thermal efficiency when compared to other Free Online Library: Comparison of performance and combustion parameters and emissions on a variable compression ratio diesel engine fueled with CsME.(cotton seed methyl ester, Report) by "International Journal of Applied Engineering Research"; Engineering and manufacturing Alternative fuels Chemical properties Composition Usage Automotive emissions Carbon monoxide Combustion Diesel engines

– Exhaust gas emissions, combustion analysis – Performance and compression, etc. all can increase the volumetric efficiency of the engine. The most effective is to increase the number of cylinders. The more efficient it is which produced a speed vs load chart. The area under the graph being the power. Engine Testing and Using the exhaust Emissions in A DI Diesel Engine was studied by biodiesel in the diesel engine no engine modification are Graboski MS in this study, From graph, it is seen that the exhaust gas temperature increases with increasing load. emission of CO found lower compare ton Fig. 4: Brake Thermal Efficiency VS Brake Power.

emission estimates and the effect of exhaust emission control methods on gas turbine per-formance. This paper provides nominal esti-mates of existing gas turbine exhaust emissions as well as emissions estimates for numerous gas turbine modifications and uprates. (For site-specific emissions values, customers should con-tact GE.) Evaluation of the effect of engine, load and turbocharger parameters on transient emissions of a diesel engine C.D. Rakopoulosв€—, A.M. Dimaratos, E.G. Giakoumis, D.C. Rakopoulos Internal Combustion Engines Laboratory, Thermal Engineering Department, School of Mechanical Engineering, National Technical University of Athens,

these is to analyse with simulation the load-dependent efficiency graph of gas boiler which provides the necessary amount of steam and then to use the results to find the conditions of optimal operation and to calculate costs reduction arising from it. Keywords: boiler, load-efficiency, heat-treatment 1. … Free Online Library: Comparison of performance and combustion parameters and emissions on a variable compression ratio diesel engine fueled with CsME.(cotton seed methyl ester, Report) by "International Journal of Applied Engineering Research"; Engineering and manufacturing Alternative fuels Chemical properties Composition Usage Automotive emissions Carbon monoxide Combustion Diesel engines

Using the exhaust Emissions in A DI Diesel Engine was studied by biodiesel in the diesel engine no engine modification are Graboski MS in this study, From graph, it is seen that the exhaust gas temperature increases with increasing load. emission of CO found lower compare ton Fig. 4: Brake Thermal Efficiency VS Brake Power. EFFECT ON PERFORMANCE AND EXHAUST EMISSIONS A. Brake Power: Fig. 4: B.P Vs Load Figure shows the Brake Power of engine with different load condition 0%, 20%, 40% 60%, 80% and 100%. The electrical dynamometer is used to measure BP.

GER-4172 Gas Turbine NOx Emissions Approaching Zero Is. Probe of it was fitted in the engine exhaust pipe. The performance parameters like brake power, break thermal efficiency, brake specific fuel and Figure 1 Load vs Brake Thermal Efficiency at 2000rpm Figure 2 Load vs Brake Thermal and Gasoline plus HHO. .It is clear from graph …, these is to analyse with simulation the load-dependent efficiency graph of gas boiler which provides the necessary amount of steam and then to use the results to find the conditions of optimal operation and to calculate costs reduction arising from it. Keywords: boiler, load-efficiency, heat-treatment 1. ….

(PDF) Performance and exhaust emissions of diesel engines

exhaust emissions vs efficiency vs load graph engine pdf

Effect of Engine Backpressure on the Performance and. In a Diesel engine as load is increased , we will be giving more throttle to maintain the specified RPM. Hence more fuel will be injected into the cylinder ( pulse width is increased ). As we demand more power ( as there is more load ) more fuel i..., EFFECT ON PERFORMANCE AND EXHAUST EMISSIONS A. Brake Power: Fig. 4: B.P Vs Load Figure shows the Brake Power of engine with different load condition 0%, 20%, 40% 60%, 80% and 100%. The electrical dynamometer is used to measure BP..

AM31 It depends on what meets the customer. 04/06/2008В В· This study investigates exhaust emissions of PAHs, NPAHs, hopanes and steranes using well-controlled bench tests of a heavy-duty diesel engine. Emissions are tested at idle and two loaded conditions with three types of fuels, and with and without a DOC + DPF. The results help elucidate effects of alternative fuels, engine load, and control, Heavy-Duty Vehicle Diesel Engine Efficiency Evaluation and Energy Audit October 2014 Final and detailed energy audit analyses across varying engine speed-load movement, is subject to many design constraints, including durability, efficiency, and low emissions. There is a need for increased engine efficiency and reliability by.

(PDF) Performance And Emission Analysis Of Single Cylinder

exhaust emissions vs efficiency vs load graph engine pdf

Engine Testing Overview users.sussex.ac.uk. But depression in exhaust gas temperature is not proportional to quantity of biodiesel in the fuel. Lower exhaust gas temperature is caused by better thermal efficiency. Engine Emissions The emissions of CO increase with increasing load (Figure 3 (a)). Higher the load, richer fuel–air mixture is burned, and thus more CO is produced due to engine performance characteristics with use of a chassis dynamometer test bench. The paper presents the load tests realization and the re-sults of exhaust emission tests for two twin vehicles, one of which has been modified in the area of the engine control-ler. Results of ….

exhaust emissions vs efficiency vs load graph engine pdf


each cycle, the engine was operated at rated injection opening pressure of 200 bar and the exhaust emissions was noted. All the experiments were carried out at full load with a constant speed of 1500 rpm and at different compression ratios of 16.5, 17.5 and 18.5 respectively. The injection timing was set to a value of 23o BTDC. International Journal of Engineering Research and General Science Volume 2, Issue 4, International Journal of Engineering Research and General Science Volume 2, Issue 4, operation over entire load range. Graph No 6: Load vs Exhaust gas Temperature

Variation of Exhaust gas temp. Vs BMEP for Biodiesel with different EGR in partial load but increase at higher engine load due to less oxygen available for F.J. Lo´pez “Exhaust Emissions from a Diesel engine fueled with transesterified waste olive oil”, Fuel 82 pp1311–1315, 2003. 7. A.S. Ramadhas, C. Muraleedharan, S these is to analyse with simulation the load-dependent efficiency graph of gas boiler which provides the necessary amount of steam and then to use the results to find the conditions of optimal operation and to calculate costs reduction arising from it. Keywords: boiler, load-efficiency, heat-treatment 1. …

Probe of it was fitted in the engine exhaust pipe. The performance parameters like brake power, break thermal efficiency, brake specific fuel and Figure 1 Load vs Brake Thermal Efficiency at 2000rpm Figure 2 Load vs Brake Thermal and Gasoline plus HHO. .It is clear from graph … Figure 2: Part Load Efficiency of Wärtsilä Engines Compared with Gas Turbines. Unlike gas turbines, Wärtsilä engine power plants have near full range capability of emissions-compliant turndown. As load is decreased, individual engines within the generating set are shut down to reduce output.

03/04/2018 · This review article summarizes major and representative developments in vehicle emissions regulations, engine efficiency, and emission control from 2017. The article starts with the key regulatory developments in the field, including newly proposed … – Exhaust gas emissions, combustion analysis – Performance and compression, etc. all can increase the volumetric efficiency of the engine. The most effective is to increase the number of cylinders. The more efficient it is which produced a speed vs load chart. The area under the graph being the power. Engine Testing and

It depends on what meets the customer's application needs Lean‐burn or rich‐burn? GE's Gas Engines business develops lean‐burn and rich‐burn technologies that have proven themselves in minimizing emissions and delivering strong operational performance. Effect of Engine Backpressure on the Performance and Emissions of a CI Engine load and exhaust emissions were measured from which bsfc and efficiency were computed. The variations of these parameters with backpressure are presented. Figure 3 shows the variation of brake thermal efficiency (η th) with engine backpressure. Figure 3(a), (b

Effect of Engine Backpressure on the Performance and Emissions of a CI Engine load and exhaust emissions were measured from which bsfc and efficiency were computed. The variations of these parameters with backpressure are presented. Figure 3 shows the variation of brake thermal efficiency (О· th) with engine backpressure. Figure 3(a), (b 07/04/2017В В· It is known that automotive engine efficiency (ie. fuel efficiency) is maximum at a specific range of medium loads. If we go higher than this range, the efficiency drops. If we go lower than these loads, the efficiency drops as well. Do we know the reasons for that? I am particularly interested in

Understanding EXHAUST EMISSIONS . Five Gas Exhaust Analysis Theory Use of a four or five Gas Exhaust Analyser can be helpful in troubleshooting both emissions and driveability concerns. Presently, shop grade analysers are capable of measuring from as … utilising energy of exhaust gas. Different readings are taken for 100% load conditions. The effect of preheating of air is analysed by heating the inlet air by using a coil type heater. Preheating improved the brake thermal efficiency and brought down CO and HC emissions however it …

Projections are met. 24% lower FC vs commercial engine. Emissions seem addressable. 24% cycle-average FC than conventional 4-stroke MD diesel engine. Projections into the HD engine show >50% BTE without VVT, high PCP, WHR, low-friction package, etc. Near the sweet spot NOx/soot>100. DPF issues at high speed and load. Achates SAE ComVEC 10/15 of exhaust gas emissions has plagued a diesel engine. This issue has gained a lot of importance since 1990s when IMO, EU, and the EPA came up with the Tier I exhaust gas emission norms for the existing engine in order to reduce the NOx and SOx. Harsher Tier II …

these is to analyse with simulation the load-dependent efficiency graph of gas boiler which provides the necessary amount of steam and then to use the results to find the conditions of optimal operation and to calculate costs reduction arising from it. Keywords: boiler, load-efficiency, heat-treatment 1. … each cycle, the engine was operated at rated injection opening pressure of 200 bar and the exhaust emissions was noted. All the experiments were carried out at full load with a constant speed of 1500 rpm and at different compression ratios of 16.5, 17.5 and 18.5 respectively. The injection timing was set to a value of 23o BTDC.

Evaluation of the effect of engine, load and turbocharger parameters on transient emissions of a diesel engine C.D. Rakopoulos∗, A.M. Dimaratos, E.G. Giakoumis, D.C. Rakopoulos Internal Combustion Engines Laboratory, Thermal Engineering Department, School of Mechanical Engineering, National Technical University of Athens, of exhaust gas emissions has plagued a diesel engine. This issue has gained a lot of importance since 1990s when IMO, EU, and the EPA came up with the Tier I exhaust gas emission norms for the existing engine in order to reduce the NOx and SOx. Harsher Tier II …

2016 2017 Worldwide Emissions Standards Passenger Cars and Light Duty . EXHAUST EMISSIONS STANDARD Economic Commission for Europe 4 European Union Type Approval & Vehicle Categories 4 Road load determination - Vehicle weight - Battery state of charge - Performance and Exhaust Emissions of a Diesel Engine Using Custard based Biodiesel G. Venkatakoteswara Rao1, Chenga Reddy. Figure 2 Exhaust gas analyzer plotted. The graph may indicate the increase of Brake thermal efficiency with load. When compared between

Probe of it was fitted in the engine exhaust pipe. The performance parameters like brake power, break thermal efficiency, brake specific fuel and Figure 1 Load vs Brake Thermal Efficiency at 2000rpm Figure 2 Load vs Brake Thermal and Gasoline plus HHO. .It is clear from graph … 04/06/2008 · This study investigates exhaust emissions of PAHs, NPAHs, hopanes and steranes using well-controlled bench tests of a heavy-duty diesel engine. Emissions are tested at idle and two loaded conditions with three types of fuels, and with and without a DOC + DPF. The results help elucidate effects of alternative fuels, engine load, and control